top of page

Welcome to the LITMUS Parental Bilingual Questionnaire (PABIQ) 

This website provides information about LITMUS parental bilingual questionnaire. These tasks were created initially as part of the COST Action IS0804 'Language Impairment in a Multilingual Society: Linguistic Patterns and the Road to Assessment' funded by the EU RTD Framework Programme.

After the end of the funding period, the tasks were further developed and adapted for more languages.

 A key outcome of this work is the PABIQ available in multiple languages.


There is widespread support for the conclusion that parental questionnaires can be of considerable usefulness as a complementary tool to identify language impairment in bilingual children.  COST Action IS0804 has contributed to this work through development and use of a parental questionnaire specifically designed for this purpose, the PaBiQ (Questionnaire for Parents of Bilingual children).  The goal of this endeavor was to provide clinicians with a way of gathering information from parents which could enable them to better interpret bilingual children’s language performance.  In many clinical (and research) settings, information gathered from parents is quite fundamental as testing the child’s home language may not be feasible, for a variety of reasons. The relevant information to be obtained from parents includes, notably, whether early language milestones were on time and whether the child has satisfactory language skills in the home language, but also, and equally importantly, information about the child’s exposure and use of each of his/her languages.  The PaBiQ, which sollicits information about both possible developmental risk factors and quantity and quality of language exposure and use was based on two existing questionnaires (one dedicated to early development and language use, Paradis et al., 2010, and one on current language input and use, Paradis, 2011).  The PaBiQ has been translated and adapted to various linguistic, clinical and research contexts.  More details about the development of the PaBiQ can be found in the following publication:

​Tuller, L. (2015). Clinical Use of Parental Questionnaires in Multilingual Contexts. In: Armon-Lotem, S., de Jong, J. & Meir, N. (Eds.). Methods for assessing multilingual children: disentangling bilingualism from Language Impairment. Multilingual Matters.

This web-site provides a list of the LITMUS-PaBiQ questionnaires in use and the contact details of the researchers who can be contacted to obtain them.

An extension of the PaBiQ is currently underway in the context of an international project aiming to provide an optimal way of quantifying bilingual experience in children. The Q-BEx project, Quantifying Bilingual Experience: Optimising tools for researchers, clinicians and educators ( aims to deliver user-friendly, online questionnaires (associated with back-end calculators), available in 13 languages, providing measures of current and cumulative language experience, as well as other measures for profiling of bilingual children, including a module on risk factors for language impairment and current skills in the home language.

PABIQ Teams and Publications

Below is a list of countries with contact details of researchers who have used or are currently using the Parental Bilingual Questionnare, followed by a list of publications.



Laurie Tuller (University of Tours)

French, English, Arabic, Portuguese, Turkish



Solveig Chilla (Europa-Universität Flensburg)

German, Arabic, Turkish, Portuguese, German Sign Language



Eleni Peristeri (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki)




Sharon Armon-Lotem (Bar Ilan University)

Hebrew, Arabic, Yiddish, Russian



Edith Kouba Hreich (Saint Joseph University of Beirut- Institut Supérieur d'Orthophonie)

Lebanese, French, English



Daniela Gatt (University of Malta)

English, Maltese



Elma Blom (Utrecht University)

Dutch, Turkish, Riffian-Berber (Tarifit), Frisian (= Elma Blom) for Dutch, Turkish, Riffian-Berber (Tarifit) and (= Evelyn Bosma) for Frisian



Pernille Hansen (Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences)

Norwegian, Polish



Ewa Haman (Faculty of Psychology University of Warsaw)

Polish, English, possibly Norwegian



Maria Lobo (Universidade Nova de Lisboa)




Svetlana Kapalková (Comenius University)




Ute Bohnacker (Uppsala University)

Swedish, Arabic, Turkish

List of publications


Other Questionniares and Teams

To be added


To be added

PABIQ Teams and Publications
Other Questionnaires and Teams
bottom of page